A literature review of eutrophication in Life Cycle Assessment. Relevance for pampean agroecosystems in Argentina
Keywords:nutrients, soils, Life Cycle Impact Assessment, regionalization, midpoint, indicators
The tools that operate within the framework of life cycle thinking have acquired great relevance, since they make it possible to determine the environmental profile of the system being evaluated. One of the risks deriving from the various economic activities is the eutrophication of water bodies and soil, and these categories are considered in all Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) models. However, aquatic and terrestrial eutrophication is not yet exhaustively explored in the field of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in Argentina.
A systematic analysis of specific national and international antecedents on these impact categories is carried out, focusing on terrestrial ecosystems, given the productive matrix and the advance of the agricultural frontier in the region. In the absence of research articles, it is deduced that there are no site-dependent characterizing factors (CFs) to evaluate environmental impacts in environmentally significant areas, given that there are no antecedents on the integrated analysis of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The methods and their models will be selected based on the one that best suits regional conditions, following the guidelines agreed upon at the Pellston Workshop 2018. This research can be further developed, continuing with the characterization of the ecosystems receiving the emissions. Argentina is currently considered one of the major agricultural regions of the world, with most activity centered in the Pampa region. The development of regional indicators for this region within the LCIA stage is of great relevance, since it will allow the quantification of environmental impacts derived from activities of great economic importance for the country, positioning itself as an advance in the study of environmental risks in the region.