In the background of the urban-rural dual system, there are many constraints on the mobility of the rural population in China, resulting in the inefficiency of labour resource allocation. The Chinese government has taken action to reform the institutional barriers, such as reforms on the Hukou system and Three Rights Division. However, the de facto land tenure arrangement is still far from marketization. This paper focuses on examining the impact of land tenure arrangement on China’s urban-rural migration from two perspectives, that is, the market channel and the government channel with the help of CHARLS database in 2013 and 2014. The paper finds that the right to renting lands promotes the urban-rural migration while the possibility of the government’s land expropriation has a negative effect on urban-rural migration. The paper also provides suggestions on further reforms on land rental and security rights.