Effect of flavored water on the morphological and chemical composition of human dental enamel microestructure in vitro
Keywords:dental enamel, emineralization, soft drinks
There is a remarkable interest in the dental area about the effect produced by the acidic agents contained in commercial non-alcoholic drinks on dental enamel due to their ability to produce caries or erosive lesions. The objective was to characterize the morphological and the chemical alterations of the adamantine structure exposed to the action of a flavored water. Human dental crowns sectioned in the buccolingual direction were embedded in polymer. Flat and highly polished surfaces were obtained by wear with descending granulation sandpaper. Observations and chemical analyses were performed on radial enamel before and after exposure to the beverage, at the ESEM FEI QUANTA 200-EDS (SeMFi-LIMF. FI- UNLP). For the morphological description, the etching patterns of the enamel were considered. The chemical elements sodium, magnesium, chlorine, and the calcium/phosphorus ratio were studied. The samples were immersed in 100 ml of a flavored water for 12 minutes. At the ESEM, the prisms presented different patterns of acid etching, which may affect the core or the profile. The chemical composition showed variations according to the area, before and after the treatment. Although the studied elements were present in the healthy enamel, both in the radial and in the Hunter Schreger bands, the percentage values were different. In the bands, sodium and magnesium increased while chlorine decreased. After the action of the flavored water, sodium and magnesium increased even more and the chlorine dropped markedly. A significant difference was found in Ca/P ratio before and after treatment. The beverage used contains acid agents in its composition that produce loss of minerals from the adamantine tissue. We conclude that the exposure of tooth enamel to flavored water produces demineralization compatible with erosion lesions.