Prevalencia de alteraciones músculoesqueléticas en niños escolares con obesidad en atención primaria

Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in school age children with obesity in primary care

Authors

  • González Pérez Brian
  • Ricardo Salas Flores
  • Liliana Aurora Carrillo Aguiar
  • Eduardo Mata Zaleta
  • Roandy Gaspar Hernández Carranco
  • Anaya Maldonado Aidaly
  • Alonso Ruiz María Esther
  • Manriquez Vazquez Jorge Alfredo

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.46932/sfjdv2n3-067

Keywords:

Obesidad, alteraciones musculoesqueléticas, niños, escolares, sobrepeso, enfermedades crónicas

Abstract

RESUMEN

INTRODUCCIÓN: En las últimas cuatro décadas la obesidad se ha convertido en una epidemia que ha afectado la salud de la población mundial. En la infancia es donde se propicia principalmente el desarrollo musculoesquelético, por lo cual una buena adquisición de la postura erguida y de las habilidades motoras básicas es fundamental. A pesar de la búsqueda de la consecuencia de la obesidad infantil en el desarrollo y función del sistema musculoesquelético ha recibido relativamente poca atención. Realizar la investigación propuesta permitirá: identificar las complicaciones y realizar una revisión sistemática acerca de las repercusiones de la obesidad infantil a nivel musculoesquelético, permitirá desarrollar acciones de diagnóstico y tratamiento oportunos, para evitar el desarrollo de todas las patologías y complicaciones mencionadas

OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de alteraciones musculoesqueléticas en niños escolares con obesidad de la unidad de medicina familiar no 77 de Ciudad Madero Tamaulipas.

MÉTODOS: Estudio clínico no experimental, prospectivo, transversal, que incluyó niños entre 5 y 12 años con obesidad que acudan a consulta a la Unidad de Medicina Familiar 77 seleccionados mediante un muestreo no probabilístico por conveniencia, que aceptaron participar en el estudio, previa aplicación del consentimiento y asentimiento informado. Se les pidió a los padres contesten un cuestionario referente a la ficha de identificación de su hijo, en otra sección contestar si ha tenido la presencia de dolor en extremidades inferiores, antecedentes de lesiones a nivel de la articulación de la cadera, piernas o tobillos, posteriormente se realizó somatometría y valoración de los pies con un podoscopio para confirmar o descartar pie plano. Se realizó análisis descriptivo, las variables cuantitativas se expresaron como medias y desviación estándar, y las nominales como frecuencias y porcentajes. El proyecto cumplió con la declaración de Helsinki, Informe Belmont, Ley General de Salud, Reglamento de la Ley General de Salud en materia de investigación para la salud, considerándose como investigación con riesgo mínimo.

RESULTADOS: Los hallazgos de este estudio se reportan con un análisis de los parámetros cuantitativos de la población estudiada, Del total de casos, la edad mínima fue de 5 y el máximo de 12 años, con una media de 8.5, mediana de 8, y moda de 7, con una desviación estándar de 2.14. El porcentaje por grupo de edad fue: 76.5% entre 5 y 7 años y de 23.3% entre 8 y 12 años de edad. La distribución por sexo fue: 5% mujeres (15) y 95% hombres (285). Del total de la población estudiada, el 5 % tenía pie plano. La presencia de dolor en extremidades inferiores, la refirió el 2.17% de los casos y el total de estos, en la extremidad derecha. Ninguno de los casos refirió antecedente de fractura de tobillos. Genu Valgo se encontró en el 18.69% de los casos incluidos en el estudio. No se reportaron Genu Varo. Respecto a los antecedentes de lesiones a nivel de la articulación de la cadera, piernas o tobillos, solo se reportaron del total de los casos un 2.3% con antecedente de esguince de tobillo.

CONCLUSIONES: Los hallazgos de esta investigación sugieren que la población infantil con dicha patología tiene una mayor incidencia y prevalencia de alteraciones musculoesqueléticas. Por ello la prevención de la obesidad desde las primeras etapas de vida es clave para prevenir dichas repercusiones y evitar un impacto negativo durante las etapas de desarrollo del infante. La visión acerca de la repercusión de la obesidad a nivel musculoesquelético se amplió y se evidenció la necesidad de crear nuevas líneas de investigación que permitan una visión más concreta de todas las repercusiones en esta etapa del desarrollo

 

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In the last four decades obesity has become an epidemic that has affected the health of the world population. It is mainly in childhood that musculoskeletal development takes place, so a good acquisition of upright posture and basic motor skills is essential. Despite the research, the consequence of childhood obesity on the development and function of the musculoskeletal system has received relatively little attention. Performing the proposed research will allow: to identify the complications and perform a systematic review about the repercussions of childhood obesity at the musculoskeletal level, will allow to develop timely diagnostic and treatment actions, to avoid the development of all the mentioned pathologies and complications.

OBJETIVE: Determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in school children with obesity of the family medicine unit no 77 of Ciudad Madero Tamaulipas

METHODS: Non-experimental, prospective, cross-sectional clinical study, which will include children between 5 and 12 years old with obesity who come to the Family Medicine Unit 77 selected through a non-probabilistic convenience sampling, who agree to participate in the study after applying their consent and informed assent. Parents will be asked to answer a questionnaire regarding their child's identification card, in another section to answer if they have had pain in the lower extremities, history of injuries at the level of the hip, leg or ankle joint, Subsequently, somatometry and evaluation of the feet with a podoscope will be performed to confirm or rule out flat feet. Descriptive analysis will be carried out, quantitative variables will be expressed as means and standard deviation, and the nominal ones as frequencies and percentages. The project complies with the Declaration of Helsinki, Belmont Report, General Health Law, Regulation of the General Health Law on research for health, considering it as research with minimal risk.

RESULTS: The findings of this study are reported with an analysis of the quantitative parameters of the population studied, of the total number of cases, the minimum age was 5 and the maximum was 12 years, with a mean of 8.5, median of 8, and mode of 7, with a standard deviation of 2.14. The percentage by age group was 76.5% between 5 and 7 years of age and 23.3% between 8 and 12 years of age. The distribution by sex was: 5% females (15) and 95% males (285). Of the total population studied, 5% had flat feet. The presence of pain in the lower extremities was reported in 2.17% of the cases and the total of these, in the right extremity. None of the cases reported a history of ankle fracture. Genu Valgus was found in 18.69% of the cases included in the study. Genu varum was not reported. Regarding the history of injuries at the level of the hip joint, legs, or ankles, only 2.3% of the total cases reported a history of ankle sprain.

CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this research suggest that children with this pathology have a higher incidence and prevalence of musculoskeletal alterations. Therefore, the prevention of obesity from the early stages of life is key to prevent such repercussions and avoid a negative impact during the developmental stages of the infant. The vision of the repercussions of obesity at the musculoskeletal level was broadened and the need to create new lines of research that allow a more concrete vision of all the repercussions at this stage of development became evident.

 

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In the last four decades obesity has become an epidemic that has affected the health of the world population. It is mainly in childhood that musculoskeletal development takes place, so a good acquisition of upright posture and basic motor skills is essential. Despite the research, the consequence of childhood obesity on the development and function of the musculoskeletal system has received relatively little attention. Performing the proposed research will allow: to identify the complications and perform a systematic review about the repercussions of childhood obesity at the musculoskeletal level, will allow to develop timely diagnostic and treatment actions, to avoid the development of all the mentioned pathologies and complications.

OBJETIVE: Determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in school children with obesity of the family medicine unit no 77 of Ciudad Madero Tamaulipas

METHODS: Non-experimental, prospective, cross-sectional clinical study, which will include children between 5 and 12 years old with obesity who come to the Family Medicine Unit 77 selected through a non-probabilistic convenience sampling, who agree to participate in the study after applying their consent and informed assent. Parents will be asked to answer a questionnaire regarding their child's identification card, in another section to answer if they have had pain in the lower extremities, history of injuries at the level of the hip, leg or ankle joint, Subsequently, somatometry and evaluation of the feet with a podoscope will be performed to confirm or rule out flat feet. Descriptive analysis will be carried out, quantitative variables will be expressed as means and standard deviation, and the nominal ones as frequencies and percentages. The project complies with the Declaration of Helsinki, Belmont Report, General Health Law, Regulation of the General Health Law on research for health, considering it as research with minimal risk.

RESULTS: The findings of this study are reported with an analysis of the quantitative parameters of the population studied, of the total number of cases, the minimum age was 5 and the maximum was 12 years, with a mean of 8.5, median of 8, and mode of 7, with a standard deviation of 2.14. The percentage by age group was 76.5% between 5 and 7 years of age and 23.3% between 8 and 12 years of age. The distribution by sex was: 5% females (15) and 95% males (285). Of the total population studied, 5% had flat feet. The presence of pain in the lower extremities was reported in 2.17% of the cases and the total of these, in the right extremity. None of the cases reported a history of ankle fracture. Genu Valgus was found in 18.69% of the cases included in the study. Genu varum was not reported. Regarding the history of injuries at the level of the hip joint, legs, or ankles, only 2.3% of the total cases reported a history of ankle sprain.

CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this research suggest that children with this pathology have a higher incidence and prevalence of musculoskeletal alterations. Therefore, the prevention of obesity from the early stages of life is key to prevent such repercussions and avoid a negative impact during the developmental stages of the infant. The vision of the repercussions of obesity at the musculoskeletal level was broadened and the need to create new lines of research that allow a more concrete vision of all the repercussions at this stage of development became evident.

 

Published

2021-08-03