Cryptosporidiosis is a zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution, caused by protozoa of the Cryptosporidium genus. In cattle, the main species involved is Cryptosporidium parvum, considered to be an important agent that causes diarrhea in naturally infected neonates, which can lead to death. This article sought to investigate and describe, based on a literature search, aspects related to the epidemiological chain, pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, control, and prophylaxis of bovine cryptosporidiosis (CB), in order to improve knowledge of the health-disease process in the population. The results showed that the disease is transmitted by the oro-fecal route, through the ingestion of food and water contaminated by sporulated oocysts of the agent. The asymptomatic picture is related to infection of the abomasum by Cryptosporidium andersoni in adult animals and by Cryptosporidium bovis or cervid genotype in weaned calves. Symptomatic symptoms usually appear in calves up to 30 days of age. The morbidity and mortality of the disease are high and low, respectively, affecting mainly lactating animals. It was concluded that investigations related to CB are fundamental to establish the clinical diagnosis and control and prevention measures of the disease.