Retrospective study of leptospirosis in humans in the city of Manaus, Amazonas (2018-2019)
Estudio retrospectivo de la leptospirosis en humanos en la ciudad de Manaus, Amazonas (2018-2019)
Keywords:epidemiology, infectious diseases, veterinary medicine, rodents, zoonoses
Leptospirosis is an infectious disease of worldwide distribution, transmitted by a highly pathogenic microaerophilic bacterium known as Leptospira spp., from direct contact with infected rodent urine, or in contaminated water and mud. The objective of this study was to carry out an epidemiological characterization of this disease in the city of Manaus, from January 2018 to December 2019, through access to the Notifications Disease Information System - SINAN database, made available by the Foundation of Amazonas Health Surveillance - FVS / AM, and thus make epidemiological inferences through variables such as sex, age, occupation, risk situation occurred in the 30 days prior to the first symptoms, clinical signs, autochthonous case, characteristic of the probable location of the source of infection, work-related disease, the evolution of the case and determination criteria for the characterization of the disease. As a result, 64 cases were confirmed, school distribution as to the regions of the city of 12.5% of cases in the North zone, 10.94% in the South zone, 9.37% in the West zone, 7.82% in the East zone, and 59.37% did not have the area identified. Regarding age, the highest prevalence was identified in those under 50 years of age, representing 75% of total cases. As for gender, 89.06% of the cases involved males. Regarding risk hypotheses, contact with water or mud from floods was the main infection factor, with 64.60% of cases, and the main signs comparable to infected individuals were: fever, myalgia, headache, prostration, vomiting, diarrhea, and jaundice. The results show that leptospirosis is a public health problem in the city of Manaus, mainly due to climatic, sanitary, and social factors, the situation in which those susceptible are inserted. Furthermore, a series of socioeconomic and health deficits are located in this municipality, and thus actions and improvements in local public health must be carried out, thus favoring the control of this disease.